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Aktualitet

Man landed on the moon 60 years ago with primitive technology, why is it difficult for the world to go today?

Man landed on the moon 60 years ago with primitive technology, why is it

Recently, there is more and more talk of manned missions to the Moon and further to Mars. But so far nothing has happened. Some of the missions have even failed.

Such were the first two attempts to launch the "Artemis" spaceship. And after the latest glitch, a large loss of liquid hydrogen from the supply line in the center of the rocket, the wait for the launch of this mission could become even longer.

For many people, a question seems inevitable: Why are there so many problems today, if we once went to the moon, with more primitive technology, and with a mission set up in just 9 years? The truth? Even then there were problems, because sending a spacecraft to the moon is much more difficult than we can imagine.

But in that case, failure (or even just delay) was not an option. To understand the climate in which the first American mission to travel to the moon was organized, we must remember the historical period from which it arose.

It was 1961, the middle of the Cold War, when the space race had assumed symbolic strategic importance. President John F. Kennedy appeared before Congress to announce that the US would send men to the moon by the end of that decade.

The Soviets had won the race in the first 2 phases of the human space adventure. They managed to launch the first satellite, Sputnik 1, into Earth's orbit in 1957. In April of that year, they also sent the first astronaut, Yuri Gagarin. 

The United States therefore needed great success to be able to reassert its technological and military supremacy in the eyes of the world, both to its Soviet rivals and to the American people. Therefore, the goal announced by the American president was unprecedented: to send a man to the moon with a newly created space agency, and before the technologies to send astronauts into space were ready.

To succeed, NASA was given a fund of 100 billion dollars at today's exchange rate. He started the simultaneous implementation of 2 programs. The Gemini Mission, which would develop the capability for spaceflight, and the Apollo Mission, which would aim to send Americans to the Moon. Both would be successful, but not without potential problems or accidents.

Thanks to huge investments, NASA managed to build the Apollo lunar module within 6 years, i.e. in 1967. Meanwhile, the most powerful rocket ever built, the Saturn V, was ready to be tested. But the optimism of the Americans quickly faded after an incident that occurred during the test of the module in the orbit of the Earth in February 1967.

Një muaj para nisjes, astronautët Virxhil Grizom, Eduard Uajt dhe Roxher Shafi hynë në kabinë për të kontrolluar procedurat e nisjes. Sapo mbyllën derën njëri prej tyre dha alarmin “Kemi zjarr në kabinë!”. Zjarri u ndez nga një shkëndijë e dalë nga një kabllo me defekt.

I ushqyer nga oksigjeni i pranishëm në kabinë, ai nuk u la asnjë rrugë shpëtimi 3 astronautëve, që mbetën të bllokuar brenda kabinës nga një derë e cila nuk ishte projektuar të hapej me shpejtësi në rast aksidenti. Por ai aksident tragjik i “Apollo 1” nuk e ndaloi programin hapësinor amerikan.

Moduli u ri–projektua e para për të ofruar më shumë siguri për astronautët. Edhe testet e mëvonshme pësuan vonesa të mëdha. Por ato synonin që të shmangin incidentet serioze.

Në fakt, testi i parë i Saturn V, ose misioni Apollo 4, rezultoi i suksesshëm.

Lëshimi pa pilot ndodhi në nëntor 1967, gati 1 vit pas datës së planifikuar në fillim, dhe vetëm pasi inxhinierët e NASA-s arritën të zgjidhnin mbi 1400 probleme të ndryshme teknike që lindën gjatë një inspektimi të urdhëruar nga agjencia pas aksidentit të Misionit Apollo 1.

Pavarësisht problemeve, brenda 6 vjetësh NASA ia doli të projektojë dhe ndërtojë nga e para raketën Saturn V, anija kozmike më e fuqishme e zhvilluar ndonjëherë përpara Sistemit të ri të Udhëtimit në Hapësirë, që do të testohet në misionin Artemis 1, dhe për të cilin u deshën 10 vjet punë.

Një arritje historike, që ndodhi në një periudhë kur eksplorimi i hapësirës ishte ende një aktivitet shumë pionier, dhe kur jetët e astronautëve (dhe të tjerëve) vareshin vazhdimisht në fije të perit. Mos harroni numrin e aksidenteve që ndodhën gjatë fluturimit historik të Apollo 11.

Astronautët Armstrong dhe Aldrin u ulën në Hënë me një sinjal gabimi që pulsonte vazhdimisht (sinjalizonte një mbingarkesë të sistemit kompjuterit) dhe që kërcënonte të ri–formatonte kompjuterin në bordin e modulit hënor. Po ashtu ulja u bë në një zonë të ndryshme nga ajo e parashikuar në stërvitje, teksa furnizimet me karburant po mbaronin rrezikshëm.

Një aventurë që sot nuk do të ishte më e imagjinueshme. Prandaj lëshimi i Artemis 1, duket se do të zgjasë shumë më gjatë sesa duhet. Në këtë mision do të testohet pasardhësi i Saturn V, Sistemi i Nisjes Hapësinore, me një kapacitet shtytës 15 për qind më të madh, dhe që është projektuar për t’u përdorur edhe në misionet e ardhshme për në planetin e kuq, Mars.

But according to some conspiracies, the moon landing at that time may not have happened at all! Therefore, even during 6 decades, there was no such mission.