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The conference that worked out in detail the problems of the organization of UNÇSH
Written by Prof. Asoc. Dr. Bernard Zotaj 18 Mars 2023
One of the first anti-fascist squads in Europe was the squad of the People's Hero and the glorious Muslim Peza. Communist ideas from the European continent had also penetrated into Albania. On April 7, 1939, the communist groups, powerless and at odds with each other, could not make any kind of resistance. Under the pressure of the events, the communist groups reached awareness and created the Albanian Communist Party on November 8, 1941. This was a very important historical moment and cannot be denied by anyone. Enver Hoxha and the Albanian communists conceived and started in an illegal and numerous way the organization of the popular resistance for the liberation of Albania. The anti-fascism that was the phenomenon was not invented in Albania, but came here through this continent. The anti-fascism of the NPSH was a real and inalienable thing and that this has historical merit and the main role, where apart from the communists there were also patriots, with non-communist beliefs, who did not like fascism. The situation in Albania led to the Peza Conference of 1942, a nationwide and important assembly, with vision and wisdom in the history of the Albanian nation. This conference was a continuation of the Lezha Assembly of Gjergj Kastriot Skënderbeu in 1444, and the Albanian League of Prizren in 1878, etc. The original archival documents present the Peza Conference as it happened in reality. From Peza, the physiognomy of the Anti-Fascist National Liberation War was oriented in two dimensions: the political dimension of the events and leadership of the war and the military dimension of the organization of the war. In the political dimension, it was represented by the Conference of Labinot 1943, the Congress of Përmet and the Meeting of Berat in 1944, which are of decisive importance. Through the documents, we also see the formation of other political organizations such as "Balli Kombëtar" and Legality, the Tapiza Meeting and the Mukje Gathering. The documents complete the historical framework, the actual armed role of the partisans is shown, as well as the degradation of many elements called nationalists into collaborationism. This is clearly shown by the documents of the English officers operating in Albania. The military dimension was very serious in the organization of the war, such as the creation of the General Staff with commander Spiro Moisiu and commissar Enver Hoxha, then Commander-in-Chief. The creation of partisan detachments, battalions and brigades constituted the essence of organized war. The documents of the Italian and German army chiefs are evidence of seeing what actually happened in Albania. The mass character of the Anti-Fascist National Liberation War was present in cities, in villages and in distant provinces, from the South to the North. The brilliance of the bravery of the warriors show a surprising vitality. This was understood and officially confirmed by the major allies, England, USA and BS. It was an institutional acquaintance with the partisans and the structure of the National Liberation Army led by Enver Hoxha. It was a recognition with difficulties, full of vicissitudes, but it was an objective and historical recognition. The First Country Conference of the Albanian Communist Party, convened on March 17, 1943 in Labinot, was one of the biggest and most important events. The conference worked out in detail the problems of the organization of the regular army, the creation of large formations, as well as their leading bodies, commands and staffs of all links. During this period, the National Liberation Front prepared the people on a large scale for the general armed uprising. Since the Resolution approved at the establishment of the NPSH, it was said that we must create and really organize the guerrilla movement of the mass, as the skeleton of the future army. Soon after, between the end of 1941 and the beginning of 1942, guerrilla units were created in a number of cities of the country. Their courageous actions carried out throughout the country served as the first school of war, from which partisan fighters were trained. With the creation of conditions, with the expansion of resistance and armed struggle, in the spring of 1942, the first partisan and volunteer detachments were created, followed by the partisan battalions. In accordance with these developments, the First National Liberation Conference of Peza, which held its work on September 16, 1942, set the task of perfecting the forms of organization of the army and the war until the creation of the General Staff, as an organization and a single leadership center, was achieved. Theirs. The Labinot Conference observed that for the new situation autonomous detachments or battalions operating in certain areas were no longer suitable. A centralized army was needed, with a leading command at the top. In this regard, the conference gave concrete instructions for the work in the army. The conference talked in detail about the creation of partisan battalions, groups and brigades, about the creation of district headquarters, areas and "of the General Headquarters of the National Liberation Army", on the connection of the headquarters and the national liberation councils, there was also talk about the organization of the party in the army, etc. The National Liberation Army showed great skills, courage and high morale. With an extraordinary act, the order was issued for the passage of military divisions and formations across the state border of Albania to liberate Kosovo and other parts of Yugoslavia up to Visegrad. This was a unique act in the history of the Albanian nation. The contribution of the minority partisans, with their war heroes, the inclusion of the Cham population in the Albanian partisan formations and in the Greek EAMI was not forgotten. The National Liberation Army was created under special historical conditions, therefore, it also had its special features and characteristics as a completely new army, in principle, organization and goals; with physiognomy, content and national strategy. It was born from the bosom of the people, its ranks were filled with the sons and daughters of the people, who were formed by education, traditions and its best qualities. The armed uprising and the creation of the army, for the conditions of our country, could not be an immediate act, but a whole process, during which a number of complicated problems were worked out and solved, such as arming, equipping with materials other necessary things, the organization and preparation of the effectives, the elaboration of war tactics, etc. The First Country Conference gave a great impetus to the development and strengthening of national liberation councils, gave an extraordinary boost to the National Liberation War. In implementation of the tasks of the conference in the following months, there was an activity and mobilization of the people in the partisan and volunteer units, especially from the villagers and the youth. Partisan formations faithfully carried out important tasks for the organization and development of a regular partisan army. The war took great proportions from the creation of partisan and volunteer units, the regular National Liberation Army, which became a formidable force against the occupier and a sure and powerful guarantee for the liberation of the people. Partisan formations faithfully carried out important tasks for the organization and development of a regular partisan army. The war took great proportions from the creation of partisan and volunteer units, the regular National Liberation Army, which became a formidable force against the occupier and a sure and powerful guarantee for the liberation of the people. Partisan formations faithfully carried out important tasks for the organization and development of a regular partisan army. The war took great proportions from the creation of partisan and volunteer units, the regular National Liberation Army, which became a formidable force against the occupier and a sure and powerful guarantee for the liberation of the people.