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Prime Minister Rama gives the coded message, warns of great change in Albania

Prime Minister Rama gives the coded message, warns of great change in Albania
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Opinion / Editorial

Why was Legality created ?!

Why was Legality created ?!

On the occasion of the 77th anniversary of the establishment of OKLL, November 21, 1943-2020

From the historical point of view, the "Legality Movement" Party has its origins since the "Triumph of Legality", on December 24, 1924, when the legitimacy of the December 1923 elections won by Ahmet Zogu was restored. In the context of World War II, the Zogists, in addition to directly contributing to the war, tried by all means to unite all the political-military factors in a common war against the invaders. The representative of the Zogists, Abaz Kupi, at the Peza Conference on September 16, 1942, had declared in front of the delegates that: I am the defender of Legality before April 7, 39, I am with King Zog ”. Also, Abaz Kupi has a primary role for the call, the organization and conduct of the Mukje Conference, held on 1-2 August 1943, where the union for the salvation of Albania was established and announced. The communist leadership accepted the Mukje Agreement until the delegates of the Yugoslav Communist Party, Miladin Popovic and Dusan Mugosha, became acquainted with its contents and ordered Enver Hoxha to terminate it. To this end, a month later, on September 4, 1943, the Labinot Conference convened, at which not only was the Mukje Agreement formally annulled, but also declared any armed current or other political tendency, in other words, began. preparing the conditions for a clash between the parties, until the civil war. While the kings continued to fight against fascism without fuss and without advertising, being successful, the communists, not only did they exploit the success and good name created by Zogist warfare, but they secretly carried out a systematic propaganda against them. Concerned about this behavior of the communists, the Zogists, through Abaz Kupi, issued on November 19, 1943, a special tract addressed to the National Liberation Council, in which they insisted on maintaining a clear position on the further course of the war against the occupier. from which they received no reply. In these circumstances, it seemed clear that the communist leadership had set another priority, comprehensive preparation for tomorrow's government. In these conditions, the royal forces, seeing that the efforts to unite all the political-military factors in the war against the occupier failed, to confirm their political legitimacy and to prevent the Communist Party from realizing its goal of eliminating the nationalist forces called on November 20, 1943 in Herraj of Tirana, a National Assembly to create a political movement. The meeting was attended by delegates from all over Albania, as well as from ethnic Albanian territories across political borders, including delegates from Zogist gangs. Among the most mentioned were: Abaz Kupi, the commander of the resistance in Durrës on April 7, 1939 and the main protagonist of the Peza and Mukje conferences; patriot Ndoc Çoba, participant in the Lushnja Congress and the Peza Conference; father Lekë Luli, diplomat Rauf Fico, teachers Gaqo Goga and Osman Myderrizi, lawyer Selim Damani, Xhemal Naipi, Mulë Delia, Hysen Meça, Xhemal Herri, etc. The platform adopted at the Constituent Assembly was very clear: strengthening military organization and uncompromising war against the occupier; the return to power of King Zog, as only he enjoyed this legitimate right; the creation of a free, ethnic and democratic Albania; establishing the rule of law; the provision by law of fundamental human rights and freedoms; social reforms to improve the lives of the people; etc. The next day, on November 21, 1943, the Zogists announced the formation of their party, the National Organization "Legality Movement" (OKLL). Ndoc Çoba was elected chairman of OKLL, while Major Abaz Kupi was elected Commander-in-Chief of the Legality Forces. The Zogist combat forces at that time were about 10,000 fighters, while at their disposal were registered about 25,000 men. For more, these forces affirmed themselves in successful battles against the occupier, where the defensive resistance of the battalion commanded by A. Kupi in Durrës on April 7, 1939, the battles of Mat, the lake of German and Zall of German, Qafë Shtama, Gurrës, Suçi, stands out. Kruja, Vorze-Shkalla Tujani, Preza, etc. OKLL was located in Tirana, Shkodra, Dibra, Mat, Durres, Kavaja, Shijak, Kosovo, Vlora, Berat, Saranda, Korca, etc. By the end of the war, its propaganda service had published 21 issues of the newspaper "Atdheu" with a circulation of 210,000 copies. 250,000 tracts were printed and distributed, etc. The leaders of OKLL, in support of the founding platform, maintained constant communication with King Zog, informing him in detail about the situation in Albania. Meanwhile, they internationalized their combat activity through letters to the US President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, Winston Churchill, through whom they gave the real picture of the military and political developments in Albania. It is a historical and very significant fact that, near the forces of Abaz Kup, was attached the British mission led by high-ranking diplomats and military like Bill Maclean, David Smiley and Julian Amery. It must be said that, Great Britain and the USA cooperated with all resistance formations regardless of political beliefs. Meanwhile, as nationally inspired organizations always sought a national agreement to fight the occupier, the communist leadership feared this very agreement. The clearly national Legality program and the prominent personalities who led it, they panicked the Communist Party-led National Liberation Movement, which saw the future as a power rather than a national agreement. Therefore she started a war both underground and open for the annihilation of Legality. To this end, the communist leadership convened the Përmet Congress on May 24, 1944, where its main decision was, "… to forbid King Zog from returning to Albania and not to recognize any government that could be formed inside or outside the country."

Ky vendim ishte absurd, partiak, i njëanshëm, e për rrjedhojë i pavlefshëm si nga pikëpamja juridike, ashtu edhe këndvështrimi politik e historik. Nga pikëpamja e të drejtës publike dhe kushtetuese, është fakt i pamohueshëm se Mbreti Zog kishte qeverisur vendin legalisht. Ky legjitimitet, u fitua jo vetëm për shkak të kontributeve të spikatura të tij, të pranuara dhe të mbështetura në nivel kombëtar, por mbi të gjitha edhe përmes mjeteve të ligjshme, në përputhje me të drejtën kushtetuese, në nje shtet demokratik, sovran e të lirë. Për më tepër, Mbreti Zog nuk abdikoi kurrë nga froni mbretëror, por për shkak të zhvillimeve që nuk vareshin nga vullneti i tij, ai pat deklaruar në Parlament se; “...nuk kam lënë mjet pa përdorur për sigurinë e Shqipërisë” dhe, me vendim të Kuvendit Kushtetues, më 9 prill 1939 u largua nga vendi për të shmangur dorëzimin e tij pa kushte. Mbretërorët, krahas rezistencës në ditët e prillit 1939, përpjekjeve për bashkimin e gjithë faktorëve në luftë kundër okupatorit dhe angazhimit të tyre drejtpërdrejtë në frontin e luftës, në të njëjtën kohë bënin sensibilizimin dhe ndërgjegjësimin e opinionit kombëtar e ndërkombëtar për kthimin e regjimit legal të mëparshëm. Në këto kushte, bazuar në argumentet sa më lart, Legaliteti vijoi të mbështetej në dy kolona bazë, qëndresës kundër okupatorit dhe kërkesës për marrëveshje kombëtare. Nëse kjo marrëveshje, do të ishte arritur siç e kërkonte kjo forcë politike, sigurisht që Shqipëria do kishte patur tjetër rrjedhë duke u orientuar për nga Perëndimi, të cilit i përkiste. Duke parë se këto dy kolona nuk po reflektoheshin nga forcat e tjera politike, drejtuesit e lartë të Legalitetit parashikuan shkarjen e vendit në përplasje civile dhe, për këtë arsye, riformatuan mënyra të tjera qëndrese, brenda apo jashtë vendit.

* Former MP & chairman of PLL